Nepal, it is situated in the lap of the Himalayas. It offers sublime beauty and is a land of dreams for many visitors. The land of Mt. Everest, Lord Buddha and so much natural wilderness always welcomes and fascinates visitors with its unique features and mysterious attractions, all situated close to one another. This small country encapsulates the most diverse Geo-topographical, cultural, socio -ethnic and biological varieties on earth. Those who have already visited in Nepal wish to return and those who have heard or read about the country, they plan to visit.
Namely Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Swayambunath, Bouddanath, Pashupatinath, Changunarayan and Lumbini, the first seven of which are located in the Kathmandu valley, as well as two natural heritage sites, namely Sagarmatha National Park (also known as Mt. Everest National Park) and Chitwan National Park.
Likewise, Buddhists along with Muslims and Christians live in harmony celebrating their festivals like Dashain – Tihar, Chad, Buddha Purnima, Loshars, Eid, Christmas etc. respectively. More than 100 different ethnic groups speak their various languages and follow their cultural practices and rituals.
This land is also rich in biological diversity. For example, more than 6000 flowering plants, 470 lichens and 300 orchids can be found in Nepal as well as more than 660 species of butterflies, 185 species of fish, 195 species of amphibians, 208 species of mammals and 887 species of birds, the latter being about 9% of the worldwide number of species. Endemic species bird, Spiny Babbler (Turdoides nipalensis) only found in Nepal. Himalayan Field Mouse (Apodemusgurkha) and the Csorba’s Mouse-eared Bat (Myotiscsorbai). Laliguras (Rhododendron arboreum) and Himalayan Monal (Lophophorusimpejanus) are the national flower and bird respectively. Some of the charismatic and flagship species that are found in Nepal are the Bengal Tiger, the One-horned Rhinoceros, the Asiatic Wild Elephant, the Gangetic Dolphin, the Snow Leopard, the Bengal Florican, the Red-headed Vulture, the Giant Hornbill, the Sarus Crane, the Rock Python, and the Ghariyal.
Geographically, it is a land locked and is sandwich between two large countries of Asia; China and India. It lies within latitudes of 26°12′-30°27′ N and longitudes of 80°40′-88°12′ E enclosing 1,47,181 sq. Km with around 28 million population and Kathmandu is its capital city. Physio-graphically, Nepal is divided into three east-west belts: Terai, hill and mountain. The high mountains and hilly regions occupy 86% of the total land area and remaining by Terai region. The altitudes vary from 69 m to 8,848 meters, at the top of the World’s Highest Peak, The Mt. Everest. Also includes, majestic eight World’s Highest Mountain Peaks above 8000 m, large fertile land at the Terai, deep gorges (world’s deepest gorge, The Kali-Gandaki) and fountain springs, swift and roaring rivers which tumble down directly from the Himalayas.
Nepal is also rich in floral diversity. More than 6,000 Flowering plants, 470 Lichens, 300 Orchids, etc are found inside the country. Laliguras (Rhododendron arboreum) is the national flower of Nepal. Around 400 Endemic flowering plants are found in here. There are 35 Forest types, 75 Vegetation types and 118 Ecosystems types in Nepal.
More than 660 species of Butterflies, 185 species of Fish, 195 species of Herpetic Fauna, 887 species of Birds, and 208 species of Mammals can be found from Terai to higher Himalayas. Spiny Babbler (Turdoides nipalensis) is an endemic bird species whereas Himalayan Field Mouse (Apodemus gurkha) and Csorba’s Mouse-eared Bat (Myotis csorbai) are two endemic Mammalian species founds in here.
Nepal has 887 species of birds, which is about 9% of the world. The (Daphe) Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus) is the national bird of Nepal. Some of the charismatic and flagship species that are found in here. There are Bengal Tiger, One-horned Rhinoceros, Asiatic Wild Elephant, Gangetic Dolphin, Snow Leopard, Bengal Florican, Red-headed Vulture, Egyptian Vulture, White-rumped Vulture, Giant Hornbill, Sarus Crane, Rock Python, Ghariyal etc.
Wider range of climatic condition is found in Nepal as a consequence of elevation variation. The climate varies from sub-tropical at low land and arctic at higher Himalayas. Precipitation usually decreases from the east to west. More than 80% of the precipitation occurs in the form monsoon rain (average 1600 mm) from June-September. Nepal also experience winter rain in western hills due to westerly wind. Precipitation is in the form of snow at higher elevation where the temperature drops below the freezing point. Usually four types of season are found in Nepal: spring, summer, autumn and winter. The temperature rises to more than 42°C at the Terai during summer and below freezing point at winter at higher elevation, however most of the time it is pleasant at the midland region.
Nepal has a unique cultural diversity which is evolved over the centuries. More than 100 ethnic groups where most of them have their own spoken languages have made diverse cultural practices in Nepal. Nepal is also known for multi religious country in the world. Hindu, Buddhist along with Muslim and Christian live with harmony celebrating their festivals like, Dashain-Tihar, Chad, Buddha Purnima, Loshars, Eid, Christmas etc. respectively. National holidays are given during these festivals. Nepali is the nationally spoken language and other languages which are also spoken are Maithili, Bhojpuri, Newari etc. UNESCO has identified eight cultural heritage sites which are Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Swayambhunath, Boudhanath, Pashupatinath, Changunarayan and Lumbini in Nepal.
The country of Nepal, nestled into the folds of the Himalayas, is a nation representative of singular flux of races and religions. ‘Melting Pot’ is a term often use to describe the Nepalese People, join together, united and despite their racial and religious differences.
The people live scattered throughout the vales and hilly terrains that feature the geography of the country. The Nepalese add up to a population of 30 million approximately. The livings in different regions have distinctive social customs and life styles that distinguish them from the other ethnic group. A group of people Newars, who lives mainly in Kathmandu Tamangs live on the outer edge around of Kathmandu valley. Sherpa’s inhabit the eastern and central regions of Nepal’s Himalaya. In the vicinity of the Kali Gandaki valley northern Nepal live the Thakalis people.
In the Midlands are populated by the Chhetris and Brahmins. Similarly, the Tharu people dwell in the Terai region. The Limbu’s, Magar’s, Jirel, Chepang, Rai and Sunwar occupy the middle hills. In the lowland Terai or in Dun valley exist in the Danwars, Rajputs, Rajbansis, Dhangars, Majhis, Dhimals and Statars.
Nepal is a harmonious blend of different ethnic groups who are bonded by their fervent loyalty to the institution of Republic of Democracy. The principle religions are Buddhism and Hinduism. The inhabitant of Nepal largely communicates in the Nepali. However, the people use Newari language predominantly in the Kathmandu valley while Tibetan languages are primarily in use in mountains region.
The culture of Nepal includes music, dance, religions, literature, art forms and architectures in mixed forms. It has numerous ethnic groups and clans, which have a separate and distinct culture of their own. There are many religions that are practiced in this exotic mountainous country.
Moreover, Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of the country. Music in all forms is appreciated and adored in the country. The Folk music is greatly loves by the Nepalese people more than modern forms of music. However, there are influences of Hindi (Indian) and Tibetan music on the music’s of Nepal.
An additional surface of Nepal culture lies in its architecture. Mainly, there are three types of architectural features that are favors in here, the Stupa style, the pagoda style, and the Shikhara style. There are numerous of temples, synagogues and Buddhist monasteries that are built based on these architectural styles in Nepal. The cultures of Nepal’s are brightly depicted in these architectural wonders of Nepal.
Apart from music, dances are also a preferred mode of entertainments for the Nepalese people. There are religious ceremonies that are celebrates in the country have music and dance as an fundamental part of their program. Religion is another important part of Nepal’s culture. Hinduism is the primary religion in Nepal, follows by Buddhism and Christianity. There are many festivals, which are celebrated, and are religious in origin. All these things combination together makes a rich cultural and heritage of Nepal.
Here are, Hinduism and Buddhism are the major religions. The two have co-existed down the ages and many Hindu temples share the same complex as, Buddhist shrines. Hindu and Buddhist worshippers may gaze at the same gods with different names though performing religious rites. Consequently, the Nepal has been declare as a non-religious country by the Parliament in May 18, 2006. Religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity and Bon are practices here. Some of the initial inhabitants like the Kirats practice their own religion based on forebear worship and the Tharus are practice animism.
Over the years, Hinduism and Buddhism have been influenced by these practices which have been modify to form a synthesis of newer beliefs. Likewise, for centuries the Nepal remained divided into many principalities. Kirats ruled in the east, the Newars in the Kathmandu Valley, while Gurungs and Magars occupied the mid-west. “The Kirats has been rule from 300 B.C. and during their supremacy, monarch Ashoka indoors from India to build a pillar at Lumbini in memory of Lord Buddha.” The Kirats were followed by the Lichchhavis whose descendants today are believed to be the Newars of the Kathmandu Valley.
During the period, art thrived in Nepal and many of the beautiful woodcarvings and sculptures that are found in the country belong to this era. With the end of the Lichchhavi dynasty, Malla kings came to power in 1200 AD, and they also contributed tremendously to Nepal’s art and culture. “Similarly, after nearly 600 years of rules, the kings were not unified amid themselves and during the late 18th century, the King of Gorkha Prithvi Narayan Shah dominated Kathmandu” and united Nepal into one kingdom.
Recognizing the threat of the British in India, he dismissed the European missionaries from the country, and for more than a century and Nepal remains in isolation during the mid-19th century Jung Bahadur Rana became a Nepal’s first prime minister to manipulate absolute power. He set up a country governed by an oligarchy and the Shah Kings remained figureheads. The Rana’s were overthrown in democracy movement of the early 1950s.